Annual billing of heating and hot water reduces energy use by roughly 20 percent. In addition to this 20 percent reduction, by providing apartment users with regular subannual consumption information, it is possible to reduce annual heating and hot water consumption by a further 7 to 12 percent. The studies listed on this page provide evidence of a long-term savings effect if users are provided with information on their consumption that illustrates the effects of their heating habits close to the time of use, and they adjust their behaviour accordingly. Both the energy source and the format in which the information is provided are largely irrelevant to the magnitude of this effect. It’s for precisely this reason that the European Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) mandates transparency for consumers through sub-metering.


As long ago as 1999, the E.V.V.E., with support from the European Commission, produced a guideline on billing heating, air conditioning and hot water costs based on actual consumption. The guideline provided suggestions and support to EU member state governments on implementing Article 3 of the SAVE Directive (93/76/EEC).
You can obtain a copy of the complete guideline either as a printed brochure, for a nominal fee, or as a PDF, available to download free of charge.

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